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Benzene in Sunscreen

Carcinogens Found in Over 78 Sunscreen Products 

The safety of sunscreens has recently been brought up to question. A recent study by Valisure, a for-profit research facility, found that 78 tested sunscreens contained a known carcinogen: benzene.4 Valisure has been known for recently releasing data about detectable benzene in hand-sanitizers as well as toxic levels of NDMA in the popular anti-acid, Zantac.

What Is Benzene?

According to the CDC, benzene is a chemical that is a colorless or light-yellow liquid at room temperature and highly flammable. Benzene is also found in many daily use products including oil, plastics, and rubbers.4

Benzene has been recognized by the World Health Organization as a “Group 1 compound that should not be employed in the manufacture of drug substances because of unacceptable toxicity.”4 It has also been reported as a cancer-causing agent for humans.

The FDA states if “use is unavoidable to produce a drug of therapeutic effect, then the levels of benzene should not surpass 2 ppm (parts per million).4 Many of the sunscreens examined had traces of benzene as much as high as 6 ppm. 

Can Benzene Be Absorbed into the Blood? 

Because benzene is a known carcinogen and is found in everyday exposures such as gasoline, a study was conducted to estimate the absorption of liquid benzene in human skin. The authors used an experimentally determined dermal flux value absorbed through the hands for one hour over the course of 40 years. They found that even at 0.1% benzene absorption, long term exposure can lead to a 1.5 times increased risk of leukemia.2

Benzene has also been linked to a wide range of adverse noncancerous effects including changes in the functioning of respiratory, nervous, immune, hematological, hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems. So even with small concentrations of benzene, long term complications can be detrimental. This all is dependent on how well sunscreen can penetrate the skin and into the bloodstream. 

Sunscreen Absorption in the Bloodstream

The penetration of sunscreen into the bloodstream was studied at the FDA. A randomized study looked at six main active ingredients used in different combinations in sunscreens: avobenzone, oxybenzone, octocrylene, homosalate, octisalate, and octinoxate. 

Of 48 healthy participants with varying Fitzgerald classification skin types, 44 completed the study. The participants were randomly divided into 4 groups and each group tested either lotion, aerosol, non-aerosol, and pump spray formulations, all of which included the 6 chemicals.3 The participants were told to apply different types of sunscreens with the active ingredients to 75% of their body over a course of 21 days.3

When plasma concentrations for the 6 active chemicals were tested, avobenzone was found to be the highest concentration at 7.1 ng/mL, but all 6 exceeded FDA thresholds of 0.5 ng/mL.3 Although the safety threshold was exceeded, the FDA upholds their recommendation to continue to use sunscreen, as the risks remain uncertain.

How Was Benzene Measured in the Valisure Study? 

Valisure utilized gas chromatography and detection of benzene with mass chromatography. They tested 294 batches of sunscreen and after sun care products from 69 different brands.4 The results are listed in the table below:

Table 1. Benzene levels by 4.0-6.0 ppm and 2.0-3.0 ppm

4.0-6.0 ppm

2.0-3.0 ppm

  • Neutrogena Ultra Sheer SPF 100+ Spray
  • Neutrogena Ultra Sheer SPF 70 Spray
  • Sun Bum Cool down gel
  • Neutrogena Beach Defense Oil-free Body Spray SPF 100
  • Neutrogena Invisible Daily Defense Body Sunscreen SPF 60 Lotion
  • CVS Health After-sun Aloe Vera Soothing Spray
  • CVS Health After-sun Aloe Vera Soothing Spray
  • Neutrogena Beach Defense Oil-free Body Spray SPF 100
  • Fruit of the Earth Aloe Vera Gel
  • Neutrogena Invisible Daily Defense Body Sunscreen SPF 50 Lotion
  • Neutrogena Ultra Sheer SPF 100+ Spray

For reference, a benzene level >2.0 is not recommended by the FDA due to risk of carcinogen. 

 

Table 2. Benzene levels by 0.1-2.0 ppm

  • Neutrogena Invisible Daily Defense Body Sunscreen SPF 50 Lotion
  • Neutrogena Ultra Sheer SPF 100+ Spray
  • Raw Elements Eco Formula Sunscreen SPF 30 Lotion
  • Neutrogena Ultra Sheer SPF 70 Spray
  • Sunburnt Advanced After-Sun Gel
  • Goodsense Sunscreen Lotion SPF 30
  • Neutrogena Cool-Dry Sport Resistant Sunscreen Spray SPF 70 Lotion
  • Neutrogena Ultra Sheer SPF 30 Spray
  • Banana Boat Kids Max Protect & Play Sunscreen C-spray SPF 100
  • Neutrogena Ultra Sheer SPF 45 Spray
  • Banana Boat UltraMist Deep Tanning Lotion
  • Banana Boat Ultra Sport Clear Sunscreen Spray SPF 100 Lotion
  • Top Care Everyday Ultra Sheer Sunscreen Lotion SPF 70
  • EltaMD UV Aero Broad-Spectrum Full-body Sunscreen Spray SPF 45

 

Which Sunscreens Are Considered Safe According to the FDA?

There were a handful of sunscreens in which little to no benzene was detected. This batch was considered safe in accordance with the FDA guidelines. The sunscreens have been noted in the chart below:

Table 3. Benzene levels <0.1 ppm

  • Aveeno Baby Continuous Protection Sensitive Skin Sunscreen Lotion Broad Spectrum SPF 50
  • Babyganics Kids Sunscreen Continuous Spray SPF 50 
  • Banana Boat Simply Protect Kids Sunscreen Spray SPF 50+ 
  • Banana Boat Kids Sport Sunscreen Spray SPF 50 
  • Banana Boat Ultra Defense Ultra Mist Clear Sunscreen Spray SPF 100 
  • Coppertone Whipped Sunscreen Spray SPF 50 
  • CVS Health Beach Guard Sun Sunscreen Lotion SPF 70 
  • CVS Health Sheer Mist Spray Broad Spectrum UVA/UVB Cont. Spray Sunscreen SPF 70 
  • CVS Health Sport Clear Spray Sunscreen SPF 100+
  • CVS Health Ultra Sheer Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Lotion SPF 100 
  • La Roche-Posay Anthelios Sunscreen Lotion Spray SPF 60 
  • Max Block Sport Sunscreen Lotion Water Resistance Blue 30 SPF 
  • CVS Health Ultra Sheer Lotion Broad Spectrum Sunscreen SPF 45 
  • Ethical Zinc Natural Clear Zinc Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50+ 
  • Max Block Sunscreen Lotion 4 Fl Oz Broad-Spectrum Water-Resistant SPF 30 
  • Neutrogena Sheer Zinc Dry-Touch Face Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50 
  • Solimo Sheer Face Sunscreen Lotion SPF 55 
  • Sun Bum After Sun Cool Down Aloe Vera Spray 
  • Sun Bum Oxy Free Zinc Oxide Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50 
  • TopCare Everyday Sport Sunscreen Lotion SPF 70 
  • TopCare Everyday Ultimate Sheer Sun Lotion SPF 55 
  • Up & Up Clear Aloe Vera Gel 
  • Walgreens After Sun Gel 
  • Walgreens Broad Spectrum Sport SPF 50 Sunscreen Lotion 
  • Walgreens Sport Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50
  • Live Better by CVS Health Body Mineral Spray Sunscreen SPF 50 

 

Which Sunscreens Had No Detectable Benzene?

In the 297 sunscreens tested, 216 had no detectable benzene.4 The general trend shows most of the sunscreens that had a trace of benzene were sunscreen sprays. Although a thorough investigation into the difference between aerosol sunscreen vs. lotion is lacking, a theory has been posed that the contamination may be a reaction of active ingredients in sunscreen and a propellant.

Beyond that, aerosol sunscreens tend to be less absorbed, so the actual risk of exposure is low. Joe Swartz of McGill University in Montreal stated “you would have to cover yourself in spray” to get to a dangerous level of benzene and that the sunscreen would be “diluted with the same stuff that propels the spray.” There was a handful of sprays found to have no detectable benzene; the brands are listed below.8

Table 4. Spray formulations with No Benzene

• 365 by Whole Foods Market Clear Spray Sunscreen Light Coconut Scent SPF 50

• 365 by Whole Foods Market Kids Clear Spray Sunscreen SPF 50

• Alba Botanica Cool Sport Clear Spray Sunscreen SPF 50

• Alba Botanica Hawaiian Coconut Sunscreen Spray SPF 50

• Australian Gold Botanical Natural Sunscreen Continuous Spray SPF 50

• Australian Gold Botanical Sunscreen Broad Spectrum Spray SPF 70

• Baby Botanicals Sheer Zinc Continuous Spray Sunscreen, Fragrance Free SPF 30

• Coola Classic Organic Sunscreen Spray Peach Blossom SPF 70

• Coppertone Clearly Sheer Sunscreen Spray SPF 50

• Coppertone Sport Sunscreen Continuous Spray SPF 50

• Coppertone Sport Sunscreen Continuous Spray SPF 70

• Coppertone Sunscreen Continuous Spray SPF 50

• Coppertone Ultra Guard Sunscreen Spray SPF 50

• Coppertone Water Babies Sunscreen Lotion Spray SPF 50

• CVS Health Clear Spray Sunscreen SPF 70

• CVS Health Ultra Sheer Spray Sunscreen SPF 70

• Derma E All Sport Performance Sunscreen Spray SPF 50

• Equate Kids Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Spray SPF 50

• Equate Sport Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Spray SPF 30

• Equate Sport Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Spray SPF 70

• Green Leaf Naturals Organic Aloe Vera Gel Spray for Skin, Hair, Face, After Sun

• Hampton Sun Bronze Continuous Mist Sunscreen Spray SPF 70

• Hampton Sun Continuous Mist Sunscreen Spray SPF 30

• Hawaiian Tropic Island Sport Clear Spray Sunscreen SPF 50

• Neutrogena Invisible Daily Defense Face Mist Spray SPF 50

• Neutrogena Kids Water-Resistant Sunscreen Spray Oil-Free SPF 70

• Neutrogena Ultra Sheer Face Mist Sunscreen Spray SPF 55

• Neutrogena Wet Skin Swim Humidity Sweat Sunscreen Broad Spectrum Spray SPF 30

• Oars + Alps After Sun Cooling Spray, Includes Aloe Vera and Niacinamide for Sunburn Relief, Green Tea Scent

• Oars + Alps Hydrating Antioxidant Sunscreen and Sunblock Spray with Vitamin C, Water and Sweat Resistant, Reef Safe SPF 50

• Olita AfterSun Hydrating Body Serum Spray Cool Coconut

• Olita AfterSun Hydrating Body Serum Spray Fragrance Free

• Pacifica After Sun Body Spray Coconut Vanilla

• Shiseido Ginza Tokyo Ultimate Sun Protection Spray SPF 50+

• Solar Recover Save Your Skin - Every Day Moisturizer Lotion Delivered in Water (Spray)

• Soleil Toujours Organic Sheer Sunscreen Mist Sunscreen Spray SPF 50

• Solimo Kids Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Spray SPF 50

• Solimo Sport Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Spray SPF 50

• SolRX Kids Dry-Spray Sunscreen SPF 60

• SolRX Sport Sunscreen Dry-Spray SPF 50

• Sun Bum Sunscreen Face Lotion SPF 50

• Sun Bum Sunscreen Spray SPF 30

• Supergoop! Play Antioxidant Body Mist Sunscreen Spray SPF 50

• Ulta Beauty Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Spray SPF 30

• Ulta Beauty Sunscreen Rose Water Setting Spray SPF 50

• Up & Up Aloe Vera Spray

• Up & Up Continuous Sport Sunscreen Spray SPF 50

• Vaseline Spray & Go Moisturising Lotion Aloe

• Walgreens Burn Relief Spray

• Walgreens Sport Spray Sunscreen SPF 70

• Walgreens Sunburn Relief Continuous Spray

• MyChelle Sun Shield Clear Sunscreen Spray SPF 30

 

Mineral Sunscreens

When looking at lotion formulations, it is generally believed that mineral sunscreens have less risk of contamination than chemical sunscreens. Physical sunscreens contain metal oxides such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide that reflect and scatter UV light. Because of the formulation and size of the zinc oxide compound, it is less likely to be absorbed systemically.12 Downsides include a “white cast” on skin that makes it a less cosmetically elegant choice. Recently, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide have been broken down and “nanosized” to minimize the white cast.12

Because of the small particle size, there is potentially an increased risk of systemic absorption, leading to concerns about their safety. While initial studies suggest that micronized zinc oxide and titanium dioxide do not penetrate deeper layers of the skin,12 further investigation is warranted to draw a firm conclusion on their long-term effects.

Table 5. Physical (Mineral) Sunscreen With No Benzene Detected

• Alba Botanica Baby Clear Mineral Sunscreen

• Australian Gold Botanical Mineral Sunscreen

• Badger Kids Broad Spectrum Natural Mineral Sunscreen Cream SPF 40

• Banana Boat Aloe Vera Sun Burn Relief Gel

• Banana Boat Kids Mineral Based Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50+

• Banana Boat Moisturizing Aloe After Sun Lotion

• Bare Republic Mineral Sport Sunscreen Lotion

• Ulta Beauty Broad Spectrum Tinted Mineral Sunscreen Lotion SPF 30

• Natural Vanilla Coco Scent SPF 50

• California Baby Super Sensitive No Added Fragrance Mineral Sunscreen Lotion SPF 30+

• Coppertone Kids Tear Free Mineral-Based Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50

• Live Better by CVS Health Body Mineral Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50

• Mineral Fusion Facial Moisturizer Lotion SPF 40

• Sun Bum Mineral Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50

• Supergoop! Poof 100% Mineral Part Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Powder SPF 45

 

Chemical Sunscreen

Chemical sunscreens include ingredients such as oxybenzone, avobenzone, octisalate, octocrylene, homosalate, ecamsule, and octinoxate. Although studies have shown that these chemicals can be systematically absorbed, no long-term studies have been conducted to show the long-term effects.

Oxybenzone has been shown to be systemically absorbed with higher levels in those who report applying sunscreen.5 Oxybenzone has shown to be linked to endocrine disruptions and allergic skin reactions.6,11 The other active chemicals Homosalate and Octisalate have been undergoing animal studies and have shown similar endocrine disruptor effects.6

Table 6. Chemical Sunscreen w/no Benzene Detected

• Alba Botanica Tropical Fruit Kids Sunscreen Lotion SPF 45

• Australian Gold Lotion Sunscreen With Instant Bronzer SPF 30

• Aveeno Ultra-Calming Daily Facial Moisturizer Sunscreen Lotion with SPF 30

• Avon Skin So Soft Bug Guard Cool N Fabulous Lotion SPF 30

• Avon Sunscreen Lotion, Gentle Breeze, SPF 30

• Babo Botanicals Sheer Zinc Continuous Spray Sunscreen, Fragrance Free SPF 30

• Baby Bum Water Resistant Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50

• Babyganics Kids Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50+

• Banana Boat Ultra Sport Sunscreen Lotion SPF 100

• Blue Lizard Australian Sunscreen Lotion Baby SPF 30

• Coola Classic Body Organic Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50

• Coppertone Limited Edition Sunscreen Lotion SPF 70

• Coppertone Water Babies Sunscreen Lotion Spray SPF 50

• CVS Health Ultra Sheer Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Lotion SPF 30

• CVS Health Ultra Sheer Sunscreen Lotion SPF 55

• Daylogic Ultimate Sheer Protector Solar Super Cobertura Lotion SPF 100

• Daylogic Ultra Sunscreen Lotion Broad Spectrum with Vitamin E SPF 70

• EltaMD UV Clear Broad-Spectrum Moisturizing Facial Sunscreen Lotion SPF 46

• EltaMD UV Daily Broad-Spectrum Sunscreen Lotion SPF 40

• EltaMD UV Pure Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Lotion SPF 47

• EltaMD UV Shield Broad-Spectrum Sunscreen Lotion SPF 45

• Equate Baby Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50

• Equate Beauty Sheer Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Lotion SPF 70

• Equate Sport Sunscreen Broad Spectrum Lotion SPF 70

• GoodSense Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50

• Hawaiian Tropic Island Sport Lotion Sunscreen SPF 50

• Hawaiian Tropic Island Sport Ultra-Light Sunscreen Lotion SPF 30

• Hawaiian Tropic Sheer Touch Lotion Sunscreen SPF 50

• Honest Beauty CCC Clean Corrective with Vitamin C Tinted Moisturizer, Light Lotion SPF 30

• Jason Kid's Sunscreen Lotion Broad Spectrum SPF 45

• Up & Up Sport Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50

• Vanicream Sport Sunscreen Lotion For Sensitive Skin Water Resistant SPF 35

• Vaseline Spray & Go Moisturising Lotion Aloe

• La Roche-Posay Anthelios Kids Gentle Sunscreen Lotion For Face And Body - SPF 60

• La Roche-Posay Anthelios Light Fluid Sunscreen Lotion SPF 60

• La Roche-Posay Anthelios Melt In Milk Sunscreen Lotion SPF 100

• Mario Badescu The Moisture Magnet Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Lotion Skin Types C,D,S

• Max Block Sunscreen Lotion Water Resistant SPF 50

• MyChelle Sun Protection Replenishing Solar Defense Body Lotion SPF 50

• Neutrogena Age Shield Face Sunscreen Lotion SPF 110

• Neutrogena Age Shield Face Sunscreen Lotion SPF 70

• Neutrogena Beach Defense Water Plus Sun Protection Sunscreen Broad Spectrum Lotion SPF 70

• Neutrogena Hydro Boost Water Gel Lotion Sunscreen SPF 50

• Neutrogena Invisible Daily Defense Lotion SPF 30

• Neutrogena Pure & Free Baby Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50

• Neutrogena Sensitive Skin Sunscreen Lotion With SPF 60+

• Neutrogena Ultra Sheer Dry-Touch Sunscreen Lotion Broad Spectrum SPF 55

• Neutrogena Ultra Sheer Dry-Touch Sunscreen Lotion SPF 30

• Neutrogena Ultra Sheer Dry-Touch Sunscreen Lotion SPF 45

• Neutrogena Ultra Sheer Liquid Sunscreen Lotion, Broad Spectrum SPF 70

• Neutrogena Ultra Sheer Sunscreen Lotion SPF 100+

• Neutrogena Wet Skin Swim Humidity Sweat Sunscreen Broad Spectrum Spray SPF 30

• Raw Elements Baby + Kids Certified Natural Sunscreen Lotion SPF 30

• Raw Elements Certified Natural Sunscreen Tinted Daily Face Moisturizier Lotion SPF 30

• Solar Recover Save Your Skin - Every Day Moisturizer Lotion Delivered in Water (Spray)

• Solimo Sport Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50

• SolRX Kids Dry-Spray Sunscreen SPF 60

• SolRX Sport Sunscreen Dry-Spray SPF 50

• Sun Bum Moisturizing Sunscreen Lotion SPF 30

• Sun Bum Moisturizing Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50

• Sun Bum Moisturizing Sunscreen Lotion SPF 70

• Sun Bum Original Sunscreen Lotion SPF 70

• Sun Bum Sunscreen Face Lotion SPF 50

• Sun Bum Sunscreen Spray SPF 30

• Sun Protector Sunscreen Lotion SPF 30

• SunBurnt Advanced After-Sun Lotion

• Supergoop! Play Body Mousse Sunscreen With Blue Sea Kale SPF 50

• Thinkbaby Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50

• Thinksport Kids Safe Sunscreen Lotion SPF 50+

 

How did Benzene End Up in Sunscreen?

Benzene is a commonly produced and used chemical that remains an intermediate to many manufactured chemicals.10 Beyond that, benzene is structurally like many of the common ingredients seen in sunscreen such as avobenzone, oxybenzone, octisalate, octinoxate, homosalate, and octocylene.11

Valisure tested whether benzene was a result of sunscreen actives reacting after product formulation but there was no connection. These results led the company to believe that the benzene contamination was due to contamination in the raw ingredients. These findings illustrate the importance for skin care companies to source quality ingredients.

Another proposed hypothesis is that the contamination happened in manufacturing factories that may be exposed to higher levels of benzene. Although many theories exist, an investigation is ongoing to identify the source of contamination.

Should I Stop Wearing Sunscreen?

Although this study has shown contamination in a handful of products, there are many other sunscreens that had no detectable sunscreen. Manufacturers are constantly working to improve sunscreen products to prevent contamination and this study will encourage companies to test their product to prevent another recall.

Also, it is important to recognize that benzene is found in the air from burning coal and oil, tobacco smoking, gas stations, and vehicle exhaust.10 The toxic levels in this study are comparable to 24 hours of urban air breathing.8 Therefore, it is important to situate the results of the study in the context of everyday exposures to Benzene.

The Skin Cancer Foundation still recommends at least a SPF 30 to protect from risk of skin cancer.9 Skin cancer remains the most diagnosed cancer in the world with 9,500 people diagnosed every day.9 Sunscreen and protective wear remain first-line in prevention. The choice of sunscreen depends on consumers concerns. Non-nanosized physical sunscreens are a first-line recommendation from dermatologists due to the low systemic absorption of zinc oxide and efficacy in blocking harmful UV rays.

Key Takeaways

  1. A recent study by Valisure used gas chromatography on 297 sunscreens and found that 78 tested sunscreens contained a known carcinogen: Benzene.
  2. Benzene has been linked with leukemia, is an FDA toxic agent, and the levels should not exceed 2 ppm. The study found a handful of sunscreens that exceeded this limit.
  3. In context to daily exposure to Benzene and the risk of skin cancer, sunscreen should still be utilized, and appropriate sun protective methods should continue to be taken.
* This Website is for general skin beauty, wellness, and health information only. This Website is not to be used as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment of any health condition or problem. The information provided on this Website should never be used to disregard, delay, or refuse treatment or advice from a physician or a qualified health provider.

References

  1. Khalade, A., Jaakkola, M.S., Pukkala, E. et al. Exposure to benzene at work and the risk of leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health 9, 31 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-9-31
  1. Kalnas J, Teitelbaum DT. Dermal absorption of benzene: implications for work practices and regulations. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2000 Apr-Jun;6(2):114-21. doi: 10.1179/oeh.2000.6.2.114. PMID: 10828140.
  1. Matta MK, Florian J, Zusterzeel R, et al. Effect of Sunscreen Application on Plasma Concentration of Sunscreen Active Ingredients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2020;323(3):256–267. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.20747
  1. Light, D. (n.d.). Valisure Citizen Petition on Benzene in Sunscreen and After-sun Care Products. https://www.valisure.com/wp-content/uploads/Valisure-Citizen-Petition-on-Benzene-in-Sunscreen-and-After-sun-Care-Products-v9.7.pdf.
  1. Zamoiski, R. D., Freedman, D. M., Linet, M. S., Kitahara, C. M., Liu, W., & Cahoon, E. K. (2016). Prospective study of ultraviolet radiation exposure and risk of breast cancer in the United States. Environmental research151, 419–427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.013
  1. Krause, M., Klit, A., Blomberg Jensen, M., Søeborg, T., Frederiksen, H., Schlumpf, M., Lichtensteiger, W., Skakkebaek, N. E., & Drzewiecki, K. T. (2012). Sunscreens: are they beneficial for health? An overview of endocrine disrupting properties of UV-filters. International journal of andrology35(3), 424–436. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01280.x
  1. Seidlová-Wuttke, D., Jarry, H., Christoffel, J., Rimoldi, G., & Wuttke, W. (2006). Comparison of effects of estradiol (E2) with those of octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC)--2 filters of UV light - on several uterine, vaginal and bone parameters. Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 210(3), 246–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2005.05.006
  1. Mandell, J. (2021, June 5). A lab found a carcinogen in dozens of sunscreens. Here’s what those findings really mean. Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/wellness/benzene-sunscreen-safe-carcinogen-/2021/06/04/33723cb6-c55f-11eb-9a8d-f95d7724967c_story.html
  2. Skin cancer. American Academy of Dermatology. (n.d.). https://www.aad.org/media/stats-skin-cancer.
  3. Brugnone, F., Perbellini, L., Romeo, L., Bianchin, M., Tonello, A., Pianalto, G., Zambon, D., & Zanon, G. (1998). Benzene in environmental air and human blood. International archives of occupational and environmental health71(8), 554–559. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004200050323
  4. Ruszkiewicz, J. A., Pinkas, A., Ferrer, B., Peres, T. V., Tsatsakis, A., & Aschner, M. (2017). Neurotoxic effect of active ingredients in sunscreen products, a contemporary review. Toxicology reports4, 245–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2017.05.006
  5. Filipe, P., et al., Stratum corneum is an effective barrier to TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticle percutaneous absorption. Skin Pharmacol Physiol, 2009
 
 
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