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Sleep, Eczema, and the Benefits of Melatonin

Eczema, Sleep, and the Perpetual Itch-Scratch Cycle

Eczema, also referred to as atopic dermatitis, is a relatively common skin condition affecting up to 20% of children and up to 3% of adults.[1] This condition of exquisitely itchy and inflamed red patches of skin can have dire effects on normal sleep patterns in children, commonly leading to mood and behavioral problems. In fact, it is estimated that over 60% of children with eczema have major sleep problems.[2] The symptoms of eczema can range from mild to severe, with itch as a prominent feature. Some children (and adults) are so itchy that they scratch repeatedly until their skin bleeds. This scratching makes the eczema worse, leading to a perpetual cycle called the “itch-scratch cycle.”[3]

The Circadian Rhythm in Eczema

Interestingly, people with eczema report much worse itching at nighttime. One explanation is that the skin experiences changes in its various functions in a rhythmic pattern over a 24-hour period called the circadian rhythm.[4,5] The circadian rhythm is the result of a biological clock that governs important physiological functions throughout our entire body, from our heart rate, hormones, and sleep patterns all the way to our skin.[7] Simply put, a biological clock in our brain called the suprachiasmatic nucleus sends signals to nerves and tissues throughout the body to operate based on approximate 24-hour patterns. In turn, our external environment (e.g., sunlight, climate, diet, and stress) can also affect the circadian rhythm.[8]

Circadian rhythm patterns are observed in multiple skin functions, including skin cell turnover, the skin’s ability to retain water, sebum (skin oil) production, skin immune functions, and even DNA repair.[9] At night, facial oil production is lowest, while skin blood flow and pro-inflammatory molecules reach a peak.[6,10] In contrast, transepidermal water loss is highest in the late afternoon and evening, leading to compromise of the skin barrier function.[9] In people with eczema, these factors likely increase nighttime itch.

Melatonin for Eczema: What is it and Does it Help?

Melatonin is vitally important to regulate the circadian rhythm allowing for efficient sleep. A tiny gland in the brain called the pineal gland secretes melatonin; in addition, our skin cells, called keratinocytes, along with immune cells also produce a small amount of melatonin.[11] Normally, melatonin secretion steadily increases and peaks around 3:00 AM, then gradually decreases, helping us to reach our deepest sleep during the night.[12] In one study, researchers found that almost 78% of children with eczema had a significantly disturbed melatonin secretion pattern, with melatonin levels being abnormally low during eczema flares.[13] On the other hand, normal to high levels of nighttime melatonin seem to be associated with less sleep disturbance and more mild eczema symptoms in children.[14]

Melatonin supplementation in children with eczema may significantly improve sleep duration and quality. In a randomized controlled study, children with eczema received 3 mg of melatonin at bedtime for four weeks. The children who received melatonin had a significantly lower eczema severity score compared to the children that received a placebo supplement.[14] These results were confirmed in a separate study that showed melatonin supplementation helped children with eczema to fall asleep much faster without being disturbed by the itch-scratch cycle.[15]

A Word of Precaution About Melatonin Supplementation

Mild Side Effects Associated with Short-term Melatonin Supplementation Use

Although melatonin supplementation is thought to be less harmful than traditional pharmaceutical sleep aids,[16] there are still some side effects associated with its use.[17] While the long-term risk of using melatonin supplements is largely unknown, the most common short-term side effects using the normal dose includes the following:[17]

  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Daytime drowsiness
  • Rash
  • Nightmares

Lack of Consistency Among OTC Melatonin Dosages

In the United States, melatonin supplementation falls under the category of dietary supplements, and therefore can be purchased over the counter without a prescription.[18] Doses of some over-the-counter brands increase the level of melatonin in the body between 3-60 times more than the normal level needed to have an effect.[18] High concentrations of the melatonin in the body may increase the potential for side effects such as impaired mental or physical performance.[19] It is important to consult a doctor before taking melatonin supplements.

Other Approaches on How to Improve Sleep with Eczema

Sleep is an incredibly important mechanism by which the body repairs and restores itself.[20] It is challenging for patients with eczema to get high quality sleep due to the constant disturbance caused by the itch-scratch cycle.[3] Improved sleep can improve the symptoms of eczema.[10] Although melatonin supplementation can be helpful in achieving fewer sleepless nights for eczema patients, other approaches to improving sleep quality include the following:[21]

  • Avoiding caffeinated beverages after 3 PM
  • Limiting alcoholic beverages at night
  • Participating in adequate physical activity throughout the day
  • Avoiding rich or fried foods close to bedtime
  • Establishing a regular nighttime routine
  • Limiting exposure to blue light (from cell phones, TVs, and computers) close to bedtime
  • Reading books that are not too stimulating before bed
* This Website is for general skin beauty, wellness, and health information only. This Website is not to be used as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment of any health condition or problem. The information provided on this Website should never be used to disregard, delay, or refuse treatment or advice from a physician or a qualified health provider.

References

  1. Nutten S. Atopic dermatitis: global epidemiology and risk factors. Ann Nutr Metab.2015;66 Suppl 1:8-16; PMID: 25925336 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25925336.
  2. Eichenfield LF, Tom WL, Chamlin SL, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of atopic dermatitis: section 1. Diagnosis and assessment of atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol.2014;70(2):338-351; PMID: 24290431 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24290431.
  3. Kido-Nakahara M, Furue M, Ulzii D, et al. Itch in Atopic Dermatitis. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am.2017;37(1):113-122; PMID: 27886901 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27886901.
  4. Le Fur I, Reinberg A, Lopez S, et al. Analysis of circadian and ultradian rhythms of skin surface properties of face and forearm of healthy women. J Invest Dermatol.2001;117(3):718-724; PMID: 11564182 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11564182.
  5. Yosipovitch G, Xiong GL, Haus E, et al. Time-dependent variations of the skin barrier function in humans: transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, skin surface pH, and skin temperature. J Invest Dermatol.1998;110(1):20-23; PMID: 9424081 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9424081.
  6. Stephenson LA, Wenger CB, O'Donovan BH, et al. Circadian rhythm in sweating and cutaneous blood flow. Am J Physiol.1984;246(3 Pt 2):R321-324; PMID: 6703085 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6703085.
  7. Plikus MV, Van Spyk EN, Pham K, et al. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity. J Biol Rhythms.2015;30(3):163-182; PMID: 25589491 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25589491.
  8. Matsui MS, Pelle E, Dong K, et al. Biological Rhythms in the Skin. Int J Mol Sci.2016;17(6)PMID: 27231897 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27231897.
  9. Vaughn AR, Clark AK, Sivamani RK, et al. Circadian rhythm in atopic dermatitis-Pathophysiology and implications for chronotherapy. Pediatr Dermatol.2018;35(1):152-157; PMID: 29231268 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29231268.
  10. Chang YS, Chiang BL. Mechanism of Sleep Disturbance in Children with Atopic Dermatitis and the Role of the Circadian Rhythm and Melatonin. Int J Mol Sci.2016;17(4):462; PMID: 27043528 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27043528.
  11. Acuna-Castroviejo D, Escames G, Venegas C, et al. Extrapineal melatonin: sources, regulation, and potential functions. Cell Mol Life Sci.2014;71(16):2997-3025; PMID: 24554058 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24554058.
  12. Haldar C, Ahmad R. Photoimmunomodulation and melatonin. J Photochem Photobiol B.2010;98(2):107-117; PMID: 20080417 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20080417.
  13. Munoz-Hoyos A, Espin-Quirantes C, Molina-Carballo A, et al. Neuroendocrine and circadian aspects (melatonin and beta-endorphin) of atopic dermatitis in the child. Pediatr Allergy Immunol.2007;18(8):679-686; PMID: 18078422 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18078422.
  14. Chang YS, Chou YT, Lee JH, et al. Atopic dermatitis, melatonin, and sleep disturbance. Pediatrics.2014;134(2):e397-405; PMID: 25022734 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25022734.
  15. Chang YS, Lin MH, Lee JH, et al. Melatonin Supplementation for Children With Atopic Dermatitis and Sleep Disturbance: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr.2016;170(1):35-42; PMID: 26569624 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26569624.
  16. Xie Z, Chen F, Li WA, et al. A review of sleep disorders and melatonin. Neurol Res.2017;39(6):559-565; PMID: 28460563 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28460563.
  17. Malhotra S, Sawhney G, Pandhi P. The therapeutic potential of melatonin: a review of the science. MedGenMed.2004;6(2):46; PMID: 15266271 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15266271.
  18. Dollins AB, Zhdanova IV, Wurtman RJ, et al. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.1994;91(5):1824-1828; PMID: 8127888 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8127888.
  19. Atkinson G, Jones H, Edwards BJ, et al. Effects of daytime ingestion of melatonin on short-term athletic performance. Ergonomics.2005;48(11-14):1512-1522; PMID: 16338717 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338717.
  20. Mignot E. Why we sleep: the temporal organization of recovery. PLoS Biol.2008;6(4):e106; PMID: 18447584 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18447584.
  21. Brick CA, Seely DL, Palermo TM. Association between sleep hygiene and sleep quality in medical students. Behav Sleep Med.2010;8(2):113-121; PMID: 20352547 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20352547.
 
 
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